Climate of the Mountains

The characteristic features of the climate of the mountains is low temperature, abundant rainfall, low pressure and low relative humidity. Following is a short description of some of the climatic elements found in these climates…
Temperature:
Temperature falls 1 degree F for every 300 feet or 1.6 C for every 1000 feet. As we ascend the mountain, the climate becomes cooler and cooler. It has a special advantage in hot climates. When the surrounding area is hot an humid , these mountain areas enjoy a cool and pleasant climate. For instance, equatorial climates are known for their hot and uncomfortable climate. Yet, Quito, the capital of Ecuador, which is located directly on the equator has a very pleasant climate. It has temperature of every month of 55 F (14 C) whereas the equatorial average is 80 F (27 C). Likewise the hill stations of India and Pakistan were the favorite of the British during the colonial era. Compare fore example the temperature of Murree in Pakistan situated at an elevation of 7500 feet (2250 M) of 77 F (25 C) in peak of summer season with that of Islamabad located only 55 Km away and having a high of more than 100 F (38 C) in the same season.
Rainfall
The mountains receive abundant rainfall to sustain thick vegetation. Usually the rainfall is more than 60 inches (1500 mm). This is because they intercept rain bearing systems and force the moist air to rise. As the air rises, water vapor in it condenses into water droplets and heavy rain falls. Both the heaviest rainfall areas of the world i.e., North East India and Hawaii are mountainous and record more than 400 inches (10 000 mm) of rainfall every year.
Pressure
Pressure falls with height so much so that at 18500 feet above sea level, it is reduced to half of the atmospheric pressure found at sea level. Due to very low pressures breathing problems usually start above 15000 feet and the mountaineers climbing very high peaks like Mount Everest have to take oxygen along with them.
The above is a brief account of the climate present on the mountains which gives an overview of what sort of climate to expect at higher altitudes.

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